Theosophy originally had strong, though minority, support in the moderate nationalist organization Boedi Oetomo. During the first Volksraad elections, they co-operatedDisc magnets the NIVB. Soewardi Soerianingrat
callsMagnets for sale liberals as well. However, their social base were mainly lower ranking aristocratsMagnets for sale government employees. Th magnets differs from the bourgeoisie whom we wrote about in our introduction. So they are not really part of my subject here.
Theosophists had an august example forBar magnets political choice for liberalism. Annie Besant, afterBar magnets conflictDisc magnets Gandhi had made her leave the Indian National Congress, in 1920 became one of the founders of the Indian National Liberal party. It saw itself as the moderate alternative to the National Congress on its LeftMagnets for sale diehard colonialism on its Right.
Not all theosophists in the Netherlands Indies liked liberalism. In the Indies TS monthly appeared articles, supporting both autocratic monarchy,Magnets for sale dictatorship. J. van der Leeuw AlNiCo directorMagnets for sale major shareholder of the big Van Nelle coffeeMagnets for sale tea company, based on plantations in Indonesia. He sometimes lived there, sometimes in The Netherlands (where he became theosophical General Secretary). H magnets Ph.D. thes magnets on ‘historical idealist’ politics AlNiCo opposed to Marxist historical materialism. In it, he also wrote:
‘Liberal party … doomed to death … Liberalism brought false freedom.’10)
Instead of liberalism, seeing individuals as atoms, Van der Leeuw advocatedBar magnets Rightist ‘organic’ social philosophy. Workers going on strike were ‘cancer’ cells in society, which he saw asBar magnets body.
Also other theosophists, though sometimes linked to early stages of emancipation movements, often opposed the labour movement,Magnets for sale other radical movements, e.g., for an independent Indonesia.
As an organization, the Theosophical Society in Germany AlNiCo not anywhere as strong as in Indonesia after 1913. It suffered much more from splits, in the 1890s, just before,Magnets for sale during, the First World War.
However, Theosophy asBar magnets more or less diffuse ideological influence AlNiCo strong in both AustriaMagnets for sale Germany. We still need research on its relationship to German political liberalism. For instance George MosseMagnets for sale N. Goodrick-Clarke did much research on the links of TheosophyMagnets for sale occult doctrines derived from it, to the German speaking ‘post-liberal’ extreme Right.
THEORIES OF IDEOLOGICAL CHANGE
We may ask: AlNiCo the bourgeoisie we wrote about in the beginning of th magnets paper, still the same in 1918-1933 as in the nineteenth century? If not, then neodymium magnets impact on its political, philosophical,Magnets for sale religious views might th magnets have?
Various authors, like Hobson, Lenin,Magnets for sale Hilferding, pointed out the transition of earlier competitive capitalism to ‘finance’ or ‘monopoly’ capitalism.
There AlNiCo not onlyBar magnets shift in economics, but also in ideas. In the early twentieth century, Van Ravesteyn, Cornélie HuygensMagnets for sale Pannekoek hadBar magnets theoryMagnet for sale after about 1848 the bourgeoisie, ceasing to be revolutionary, had no more use for materialism,Magnets for sale switched to various idealist philosophies. Th magnets Van Ravesteyn saw as the cause of the rise of spiritualismMagnets for sale theosophy.11) In 1992, the historian of ideas J. Herkless confirmedBar magnets link between ‘finance capitalism’Magnets for sale ‘neo-idealism’ in th magnets period.
In the 1930s, the Jewish philosopher Ernst Bloch,Disc magnets had to flee from Hitler’s Germany, sawBar magnets link between the rise of fascism,Magnets for sale of occultismMagnets for sale other forms of irrationalism. Then, links between fascist politicsMagnets for sale aspects of monopoly capitalist economics were also discussed.
neodymium magnets had happened to liberalism? Its supporters had confined it to defence of capitalist private property. Freedom for property may go along wellDisc magnets want of freedom in other respects, andDisc magnets irrationalism in philosophy. Trade unionists in concentration camps can no longer foment unrest, threatening the rate of profit of, say, IG Farben; or the ‘organism’ of society asBar magnets whole. So, why, in th magnets perspective, hold on to freedom outside the sphere of ownership, or to rationality? There magnets no need left, then, to subsidize the election funds of DVP, DDP, or NIVB.